From The Editor – The Volcano Of Torah

Luckily for us, Shavuos is every day. The Zohar proclaims that the Torah is given anew every day. This conforms with the Mishna in Pirkei Avot that says, “A daily voice from Har Sinai proclaims, ‘Woe to the disgrace of Torah.’”

My late relative, Rav Avrohom Genechovsky zt”l, provided me with an insight that sheds light on nature and in turn the Volcano in Hawaii that has been erupting.

He said the outside of the earth is mainly covered in water, the center of earth is energized by fire and the inner core is rock-solid. Based on this he said that our behavior should be modeled after the makeup of the world. On the outside we should be malleable and flexible with our neighbors like water, our center should be guided by fire, namely the Torah, and our inner core should be rock-solid in our beliefs like the inner core of earth.

The Volcano might make for exciting news, but it also exhibits the pouring out of fire from the center of earth that symbolizes what our center should be filled with on a daily basis, the fire of Torah.



Featured Shavuos Guest – Rabbi Elisha Friedman – Rabbi Of Congregation Kesher Israel In Harrisburg, PA – The Challenge Of Revelation

Shavous commemorates the occasion on which God appeared on a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula, more than 3,000 years ago, and revealed to a ragged group of recently freed slaves a set of laws which would forever more change the course of history. Those laws, which were recorded in a document we call the Torah, along with some narrative and hortatory passages, have been the the guiding factor in the development of Judaism from that time on. Through the greatest challenges and difficulties, the message of that Sinai Revelation has continued to shine forth, providing guidance and inspiration for generations of Jews as to how to live their lives.

To the modern ear this story seems unlikely. We are not accustomed to God appearing on mountain tops and delivering substantive guidance to large groups. Nowadays the average religious believer is happy with far less. Traffic breaking up after a fervent prayer can be cause for religious celebration for the modern religious seeker. A long sought pregnancy, job opportunity, marriage partner, or miraculous healing from illness which seem somewhat supernatural are generally more than enough to reassure modern believers that God is with them. We are satisfied with far less than God himself appearing on a mountain top and perhaps that is our problem. Perhaps our ancestors who expected more open involvement from God got more.

But in truth even the rabbis of old saw the revelation at Mt. Sinai as a unique event in the history of the world, one which could never be replicated. Maimonides, as great a Jewish authority as any, was not impressed by miracles.

משה רבנו לא האמינו בו ישראל מפני האותות שעשה. שהמאמין על פי האותות יש בלבו דפי שאפשר שיעשה האות בלט וכשוף. אלא כל האותות שעשה משה במדבר לפי הצרך עשאם. לא להביא ראיה על הנבואה.

Moses our Master was not believed in by Israel because he delivered tokens, for whosoever bases his belief contingent upon tokens retains suspicion in his heart, for it is possible that the token was delivered by means of enchantment and witchcraft. But all the tokens delivered by Moses in the wilderness were responsive to necessities, and not as testimony for prophecy.

(Yesodei Hatorah 8:1, trans.

He argued that miracles are no basis of faith, they’re too easily questioned and fleeting, and this has proven over the years to be good theology. If one were to accept all the reported miracles every world religion would have to be true, theology would shift with the latest fads and current miracles, and some of the greatest liars and charlatans would be our chief theologians. So it was with good foresight that Maimonides downgraded miracles from the center of religion to the periphery.

Only one historic miracle for Maimonides could serve as the basis of faith.

ובמה האמינו בו. במעמד הר סיני שעינינו ראו ולא זר ואזנינו שמעו ולא אחר האש והקולות והלפידים והוא נגש אל הערפל והקול מדבר אליו ואנו שומעים משה משה לך אמר להן כך וכך. וכן הוא אומר (דברים ה ד) “פנים בפנים דבר  ה’ עמכם”. ונאמר(דברים ה ג) “לא את אבתינו כרת ה’ את הברית הזאת .”

Wherein, then, did they believe in him? In being present at Mount Sinai; for our own eyes saw and not through a stranger’s, and our own ears heard and not that of another; the flame, the thunder and lightning, and he drew near the thick cloud and the Voice speaking unto him, we listening, saying: “Moses, Moses, go and tell them thus and such,” for so he also said: “The Lord spoke with you face to face in the mount out of the midst of fire” (Deut. 5.4); and it is moreover said: “The Lord made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us” (Ibid. –31).

(Yesodei Hatorah 8:1, trans.

The Revelation at Mt. Sinai was for Maimonides the central event of Judaism and one which we look to as the foundation of our belief. If not for Mt. Sinai we would be left with flimsy miracles but little in the way of lasting lessons for contemporary belief. Mt. Sinai means that not only does the Jew have yet another significant miracle, but we now have a unique miracle: it can serve as the basis for the most solid and enduring faith.

Of course Jews love study and thinking and intellectual argument, and so in the years following Maimonides many would dispute his philosophical framework outlined here. Other great Jewish thinkers would see miracles as a crucial component of religious thought, but our concern here is to make sense of Maimonides position and in that we must acknowledge that after some reflection we are left in doubt. Why should the miracle of Revelation be so qualitatively different from all the others?  

Maimonides contention here seems to be, and this he explains more fully in a letter, Iggeret Teiman, that at Sinai every Jew heard and experienced the miracle themselves, without recourse to an intermediary. Other miracles come about through the mediation of a go-between, a miracle worker who allows the person to experience a given miracle. Not so at Mt. Sinai when every Jew experienced the miraculous sights and sounds on their own, not as guests to Moses’ miraculous experience. Other public miracles are events which are experienced as a community, through the medium of the prophetic leader. This type of shared experience is claimed commonly enough throughout religious history. Mt. Sinai was not a shared and communally experienced miraculous event, it was a personal and private miraculous event which happened to occur to an entire nation at the same time. This is a profound distinction, and one well worth reflecting on this Shavous.

But it has further implications for us. If every Jew experienced Mt. Sinai on their own, then we must understand what this means for us today. It means we too must accept the Torah on our own, in a way which makes sense to our lives and intellects. We too must find the path of Torah with which we can connect directly, which speaks to us as an individual. It is not enough to be part of a group who study Torah, but rather each of us must strive to re-experience that connection with the Torah directly. And all this means something more challenging: it means we must study. There can be no theological supplement for the actual study of Torah. Only then can we experience the directness of Revelation and understand the miracle upon which all Judaism is based.

The act of studying Torah is therefore the foundation of Judaism. Only through beholding over and over again the majesty, the depth and breadth of Torah study, only by interacting with the Divinity contained in the abstract and often-times complicated minutiae of halachic study can we hope to recreate that Sinai experience and understand the miracle at the heart of the Torah. If we outsource the complexities of Torah to someone else, then they can experience the miraculous element, but not us. The miracle of Torah is reserved even today for those who make the effort to engage with its subject matter, if we are too busy or have other priorities, it only leads to our own spiritual impoverishment.

Rabbi Elisha Friedman  leads Congregation Kesher Israel in Harrisburg, PA. He is a graduate of Yeshiva University’s (YU) Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary and received his Ph.D. from Yeshiva University in Modern Jewish Philosophy. At Kesher Israel he delivers regular lectures and classes on topics of interest and brings Jewish ideas to bear on the contemporary world.

Yacov Nordlicht – Parsha Behar

In this week’s parsha, we find the mitzvah of shmittah. Moreinu Rav Nosson Tzvi Finkel zt”l used to say that this mitzvah is the root of bitachon in HaShem. Only someone who has complete bitachon is able to leave his field for a year and trust that HaShem would see to his needs.

The Ba’alei Mussar explain numerous ways for an individual to grow in his bitachon. One way, is based on a Rambam in Hilchos De’os. The Rambam asks, how is it possible for HaShem to command us to love and fear Him? Love and Fear are emotions which come by themselves! It’s not something which we have control over! The Rambam explains that the commandment isn’t merely to possess a feeling of fear and love for HaShem. Rather, its to look into the briah and be nispoel by the wonders of HaShem. By doing this, a person reflects and recognizes the greatness of HaShem. This results in fear and love of Him.

The same thing is with bitachon. The logic of the Rambam is that it’s impossible to not love and fear HaShem if we’re attuned to His greatness. So too, it’s impossible not to have complete bitachon in HaShem if we constantly see His greatness everywhere in the world.

Sometimes, HaShem gives us a present, a moment of clarity when His presence is simple and clear. An avodah is to take that moment of clarity and extend it to the moments of confusion.

A person grows in his bitachon by realizing the greatness of HaShem. Sometimes, this realization comes in small doses. Other times it comes in torrents. The avodah is to take the inspiration from the times of clarity and relive it every day. As the Ramban says, the big miracles give testimony on the small miracles. When we take such inspiration and apply it to the times where HaShem’s presence isn’t as clear to us- that’s the essence of living a life of bitachon.

Rabbi Baruch Bodenheim – Associate Rosh Yeshiva – PTI – Passaic Torah Institute – Parsha Behar-Bechukotai – Shmita – Learning Reliance On Hashem

When I was a bachur learning in Eretz Yisroel, I returned to America in the summer to earn money for the following year in Yeshiva. One summer, I was working as an intern for an investor on Wall Street. The salary was quite good, but it was not enough cover all my expenses for the following year. Still, the internship was valuable, and the salary was better than anywhere else. As I thanked my boss on my last day, telling him I was going back to Israel to study, he handed me a wad of bills saying this was a “bonus.” When I came home to count the bills, I was floored: it totaled the exact amount of money I still needed for the next year.

I often think of this episode when learning the laws of Shmita (leaving farmland fallow every seventh year). Truthfully, it’s hard for us in the Diaspora to appreciate the challenges of Shmita, because how many Jewish farmers do we know? Yet, anyone who owns his own business can begin to visualize what it would mean to close shop for a week, let alone for an entire year. What will happen with his clients? How will he pay the mortgage or rent with no money coming in? How will he survive such a challenge? It’s virtually inconceivable. And really…it’s not just a year. The next year, he has to start from scratch with nothing on the shelf and no money in the bank.

It’s easy to understand why the Midrash labels the topic of Shmita as the paradigm of placing one’s reliance on Hashem.

The commentators ask a very compelling question. The Torah says explicitly “If you shall say ‘what shall I eat during Shmita,’ I will give a blessing and the sixth year will bear enough fruit to eat for three years.” How could anyone then be worried? The bumper crop of the sixth year will produce three times the normal amount, filling the storehouses. What is the major need for bitachon (faith) in Hashem?

The Kli Yakar answers that Hashem can give blessings in different ways. One of them is to make a small amount last for a long time. For example, when I was in my teens and twenties, I had an extremely fast metabolism. I needed to eat large quantities of food for each meal. Yet, I wouldn’t gain a single pound! When I got married, my wife had to cook as if we were four! On the other hand, I had a friend who was full after eating just one slice of bread. This is what Rashi is referring to when he explains the blessing in Parshas Bechukosai — the food will be blessed in one’s stomach. Just a little will fully suffice.

This is the blessing of Shmita. The produce of the sixth year will be the regular amount, but it will last for three years. This requires bitachon – a belief that Hashem will provide as promised, even though it looks like the blessing is not there. It takes true faith to expect the income of just one year to stretch for three. It would seem that this degree of bitachon is reserved only for people on a very high level; however, the requirement of Shmita is for every Jew. Apparently, then, every Jew is able to be on this level, with the proper effort.

We are confronted with concerns and challenges every day. How will we afford our current and future expenses? How will we be able to fulfill the demands of our jobs? If we follow the lesson of Shmita — to place our reliance on Hashem – we may then find that the resources we have will, with Hashem’s help, be more than adequate to deal with all our issues and needs. Hashem has many ways and means to provide for our needs. Let us follow the advice of King David in Tehillim (55:23): “Cast your burdens on Hashem and he will sustain you.”